Entries tagged with “Cornel Chiriac”.


Timp de patru decenii postul de radio ‘Europa Libera’ a fost sursa cea mai importanta de informare a romanilor care traiau sub dictatura si carora li se intezisese accesul la o informare libera, la o presa pluralista, la aflarea stirilor si exprimarea ideilor fara cenzura. Incepand cu anul 1969 cand acestui post de radio i s-a alaturat Cornel Chiriac, animatorul muzical care a deschis tineretului roman fereastra spre muzica si cultura libera a generatiilor pop si rock ale anilor 60 si 70, ‘Europa Libera’ a devenit si postul preferat al tineretului. Am fost si eu printre cei care au fost ascultatori fideli ai acestui post de radio, in primul rand al emisiunilor muzicale, dar de aici am extins auditiile si spre cele culturale si politice. Nu cred de loc ca exagerez daca afirm ca au fost ca mine milioane de tineri in generatia mea si in cele dinainte si de dupa mine.

‘Documentele provin din numeroase tari (…), care au fost fie tinta actiunilor bandei lui Carlos, fie au desfasurat anchete pentru ca cetateni ai lor au fost vizati sau implicati intr-un fel sau altul. Nu am folosit niciun fel de alte surse, oricit de ispititoare anecdotic, ci doar documentele aflate in posesia mea, documente care mi s-au parut pertinente sau relevante pentru chestiunea in cauza si pe care am putut sa le examinez in detaliu si sa le verific prin coroborare.’ (pag. 138)

Suna a ‘disclaimer’ dar este intr-un fel necesar pentru a explica geneza volumului ‘Sacalul Securitatii’, carte scrisa de Liviu Tofan si aparuta in 2013 in colectia ‘Hexagon’ a editurii Polirom, cu sprijinul Institutului de Cercetare a Crimelor Comunismului si Memoria Exilului Romanesc. Motivul este ca Liviu Tofan nu este numai un reporter, ziarist de investigatie, si analist de prima mana al radioului si televiziunilor in limba romana, si un cercetator recunoscut al dictaturii comuniste si al razboiului rece, ci si un veteran al postului de radio Europa Libera unde a lucrat vreme de doua decenii. Cum in miezul cartii se afla atentatul comis in 1981 de banda teroristului Carlos la sediul din Munchen al Europei Libere, ne putem imagina (si cred ca de multe ori si Tofan insusi si-a imaginat) cum printr-o usoara deviere de directie a istoriei, autorul cartii ar fi putut fi martor direct daca nu chiar victima a atentatului. Liviu Tofan nu poate avea pretentia cercetatorului complet obiectiv. Cartea aceasta este un act de acuzare insotit de probe al faptelor regimului comunist si ale Securitatii in alianta cu una dintre gruparile cele mai notorii ale terorismului international in anii 70 si 80. Un act de acuzare documentat si convingator.

 

sursa www.amosnews.ro

sursa www.amosnews.ro

 

Structura cartii nu este cronologica. Prima parte se concentreaza asupra procesului recrutarii lui Carlos si a pregatirii atentatului din februarie 1981. Relatarea si documentele anexate nu lasa prea multe indoieli in legatura cu faptul ca in acea perioada Securitatea avea doua obiective principale pentru care o alianta cu orice fel de diavol era considerata legitima: pedepsirea ‘tradatorului’ Pacepa, fostul sef al spionajului romanesc care se refugiase in Statele Unite, si intimidarea pana la lichidarea fizica a varfurilor emigratiei romanesti anticomuniste, si printre ele directorii si ziaristii cei mai reputati ai Europei Libere. Citat din lista de tinte dintr-un document al Securitatii intitulat “Plan de masuri”:

‘intreprinderea de masuri speciale in scopul paralizarii activitatii obiectivului “EUROPA LIBERA” si al neutralizarii unor angajati, prin avarierea si distrugerea unor cladiri si instalatii ale postului, a locuintelor si mijloacelor de transport personale, precum si prin producerea de vatamari corporale asupra celor mai activi angajati si colaboratori ai “EUROPEI LIBERE”. (pag. 36)

Nu exista prea multe dubii nici in legatura cu faptul ca aprobarile pentru recrutarea teroristului Carlos si a bandei sale in scopul punerii in practica a celor doua obiective de maxima prioritate au fost date la cel mai inalt nivel al conducerii Romaniei si a partidului comunist. In timp ce Nicolae Ceausescu era curtat de cancelariile politice ale Occidentului, sau cel putin de unele dintre ele care inca mai erau amagite de fatada de ‘reformist’ sau il jucau ca pe o carte impotriva Moscovei in fazele finale ale razboiului rece, serviciile sale secrete la ordinul sau se aliau si recrutau in serviciile lor pe unii dintre teroristii cei mai cautati, autori ai unor atentate oribile impotriva unor obiective in mare majoritate civile din tari ca Franta sau Germania.

Cine a fost Carlos? Liviu Tofan explica destul de elocvent in cartea sa ca renumele i-a fost mai mare decat numele, si ca acest renume a fost in mare masura inventat si in mod sigur mult amplificat de presa de senzatie a vremii:

‘Cariera lui Carlos de mare vedeta a terorismului international a fost, de fapt, foarte scurta si, in contrast puternic cu glorificarea tabloida din epoca, plina de esecuri… Carlos a facut greseala de a se concentra excesiv asupra razboiului sau impotriva Frantei cu scopul eliberarii iubitei sale si al satisfacerii unei ambitii personale.’ (pag. 87)

 

sursa www.romania-actualitati.ro

sursa www.romania-actualitati.ro

 

Pana si atentatul din 1981 impotriva Europei Libere la Munchen a fost un semi-esec, si cel putin dupa analiza lui Liviu Tofan a fost vorba deste un semi-esec intentionat:

‘Ce n-a inteles Plesita decat prea tirziu era ca planul lui Weinrich si Carlos a fost, in cele din urma, de a se face doar ca “arunca in aer” Radio Europa Libera.” (pag. 69)

In anul 2012 prietena noastra Edelina Stoian, crainica si redactoare la Europa Libera cam in aceiasi perioada in care Tofan a lucrat acolo ne-a fost ghid in cladirea care a adapostit postul de radio la Munchen. Am putut vedea atunci cu ochii mei ceea ce reiese de altfel clar din schitele din anexele cartii. Desi teroristii stiau exact unde se afla birourile angajatilor sectiei romane a Europei Libere, bomba care a zguduit cladirea si a spart ferestrele caselor pe raza de kilometri a fost pusa in apropierea aripii exact opuse a cladirii. Ziua aleasa (sfarsit de saptamana) si ora (seara, cand majoritatea emisiunilor erau inregistrate) minimizau numarul angajatilor aflati in cladire. Si astfel, in pofida ordinelor de la Bucuresti si spre dezamagirea celor care au finantat actiunea, atentatul din februarie 1981 nu s-a soldat cu victime si doar doi raniti gravi (dar nu dintre angajatii sectiei romane) au purtat toata viata sechelele atentatului. Motivele pentru care Carlos a ‘ratat’ – se pare intentionat – actiunea au ramas ne-elucidate, sau in orice caz nu sunt explicate in carte.

A doua parte a cartii este dedicata biografiei lui Carlos inainte si dupa perioada colaborarii cu Securitatea din Romania, imprejurarilor in care a fost arestat si pus dupa gratii pentru tot restul vietii, ca si anchetelor – in mare parte nereusite – pentru a scoate la lumina responsabilii din Romania care l-au angajat si manipulat. Revoutionar de salon cu studii la Moscova, provenit dintr-o familie de comunisti venezuelieni, Ilici Ramirez Sanchez zis Carlos s-a facut cunoscut in lumea terorismului international aliindu-se cu organizatiile palestiniene in anii 70. Cu o personalitate umflata de presa de senzatie, Carlos a devenit din cauza erorilor si esecurilor sale o povara pentru manipulatorii sai din celelalte tari ale blocului sovietic, fiind racolat de serviciile romanesti in perioda in care se afla deja pe ‘panta descendenta’ si devenise ‘persona non grata’ in alte tari comuniste.  Securitatea romana si-a gasit in el o unealta temporara, si s-a descotorisit de el in perioada imediat urmatoare. Lipsit practic de un adapaost sigur in Europa, Carlos si-a trait ultimul deceniu de relativa libertate in Siria si Liban, inainte de a fi tradat de fostii sai complici, capturat de serviciile de spionaj occidentale, judecat de justitia franceza si pus in spatele gratiilor pentru restul vietii sale.

Sacalul Securitatii’ reuseste sa schiteze un portret destul de convingator al super-teroristului de opereta (dar totusi o opereta cam sangeroasa) care a fost Carlos. Este o carte interesanta prin revelatiile si detaliile pe care le furnizeaza, desi probabil ca esenta faptelor relatate va fi cunoscuta majoritatii cititorilor. Personal as fi preferat o biografie ceva mai detaliata a lui Carlos, a vietii sale dinainte si dupa perioada colaborarii cu Securitatea. Din totalul de vreo 250 de pagini a cartii, dupa o prefata cam ‘de serviciu’ semnata de Radu Ioanid, circa 140 de pagini povestesc istoria personajului Carlos si a ispravilor sale. Restul sunt documente pe care se bazeaza naratiunea si analiza istorica, multe deja cunoscute din lectura cartii, explicate si referate in text. Este o carte putin cam ‘subtire’ raportata la asteptari, dar totusi o carte foarte interesanta la lectura, despre o perioada in care pe langa restrictiile de care suferea populatia si de opresiunea interna, regimul lui Ceausescu colabora pe plan extern cu unele dintre fortele cele mai obscure din lumea terorismului, in scopul aplicarii unei politici care nu era nici ea altceva decat terorism de stat.

 

Do gods get old? Can gods get old? They probably cannot, it’s just us. They remain forever young (yes, this is a song title!) and when we count the passing of their years actually we count the passing of ours.

source last.fm

Today Bob Bylan turned 70. Bob Dylan the human, Bob Dylan the young boy from Minnesota who was dreaming to become a second Little Richard, who came to New York and sang in the Greenwich Village clubs, engaged in the protest movement of the 60s and became the icon of his generation, who almost never stopped during the last five decades to be a great poet, a great musician, a great conscience.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_zY_cM0_6vA

(video source ZIRROW035)

The impact that Bob Dylan’s music had on me and on many other young people who spent their best years on the bad side of the Iron Courtain was in many ways the same and in many ways different than the one it had on our colleagues of generation in the US or Western Europe. While the crowds were gathering at festivals in Newport or at the Isle of Wight (Dylan did not do Woodstock) and young people were protesting in the streets against the Vietnam war with his songs in mind, we were listening near the radio sets to the legendary DJ Cornel Chiriac’s broadcasts from Radio Free Europe where Cornel was telling us about the festivals or about the meeting of Dylan with Woodie Guthrie – his mentor in the young days. The most important thing is that from the ‘Metronom’ broadcasts we could hear his music and songs like ‘Blowing in the Wind’, ‘The Times they are a-Changin’ or ‘Like a Rolling Stone’ had a very different meaning and message that I am not sure that Dylan himself was ever aware.

Happy Birthday, Bob Dylan!

I do not remember exactly the moment, but it’s very probable that I learned about Jimi Hendrix’s death exactly 40 years ago from Cornel Chiriac’s Metronom broadcasts at Radio Free Europe.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5hSW67ySCio

(video source vwontheautobahn)

Hendrix was an exceptionally gifted musician and an icon of his generation. He was born in 1942, the same or around the same year the members of the Beatles were born, and his death happened the year the Beatles broke-up. In less than one decade Hendrix, the Beatles, Bob Dylan and a few other musicians changed forever the sound of the rock music and the face of the Western culture. From marginal entertainment rock became the core of the culture of the new generations and of their way of life.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rf-Mtd2A1DI

(video source criak22)

Same as the career of the Beatles, Hendrix’s path and first recognition happened in Europe. It was followed by appearances that are by now legendary at the festivals in Monterrey in 1967, Woodstock in 1969 and Isle of Wight in 1970.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bng3agUOYiI

(video source JethroTull4you)

Hendrix, as all of the great musicians of his generation found roots and inspiration in the classical American guitar blues music, but transformed and took it ahead to expressing the feelings of a whole generation, turned it in an universal sound that transcends borders and not only stays actual, but gains value as the time passes.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pPTP_JyQpl8

(video source dragonchaser07)

He was a fantastic  instrumentalist, an innovator in guitar technique, an inventor of new sounds and an opener of paths that were took over by other genres that were to be discovered and get names only later. His career was cut short by the untimely death but luckily recordings and filmed sequences from concerts, TV shows and festivals remain available, bear witness and inspire musicians that came after him. I brought here a few that I found available on youTube and I hope that you will enjoy them.

Veteran documentary director Leslie Woodhead filmed on the British pop scene since the 60s. He starts ‘How the Beatles Rocked the Kremlin’ by telling how he filmed the four boys in Liverpool in 1962. He did not stop here, catching The Stones in the Park on film in 1969. Then, triggered by the events in Prague in 1968 his attention shifted to the processes in Eastern Europe, to the repression and the hopes, the birth of the Solidarity movement in Poland and the changes that finally led to the fall of the wall in 1989. Lately he was in Srebenica and in Beslan,with the attention still focused in the same geographical space, to be witness to the horrors of the post-communist world. ‘How the Beatles Rocked the Kremlin’ represents the merging of the passion of rock in the first years of his career with the long term obsession with the history of the last decades of the Communist era.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=elaz8Ffp2mI

(video source LPBTV)

Woodhead’s thesis is striking and daring. He says that it is not merely the cold war enemies or the economic situation that led to the melting of the Soviet system, and it was not Gorbachev either. More than everything else it was the four boys from Liverpool, the culture of freedom and the influence they had on the young generations of Russia in the 60s and 70s.

(video source TRIESTEFILMFESTIVAL)

And let me say that I believe that for a large extent he is right. I have lived that period in Romania. I had the walls in my room filled with posters of my rock music idols. I was circulating vinyl music disks obtained on the black market and I was copying music on tapes. I was listening to foreign radio stations and especially to Radio Free Europe, where we, Romanian, had the chance to listen between 1969 to 1975 to the fabulous music that was broadcast by the legendary DJ and professor of rock and freedom who was Cornel Chiriac. I knew none of the people who were interviewed by Leslie Woodhead for the film – Artemy Troitsky, Kolya Vasin, Iury Pelyushonok – fans, musicians, DJs, but I knew their stories because this was the story of my whole generation, a generation which was taught freedom of thought and beauty and joy of life by the Beatles and the rock music that followed, which refused to live according to the rules imposed by the system, and which eventually, when it grew up helped tear down the system. And I do agree with Woodhead when he says (in other words, but this is the essence) that when thinking at the fall of the Soviet system ‘Yellow Submarine’ was more important than rockets, and Paul and John played a greater role than Reagan and Gorbachev.

Exaggerating? Just a bit.

(video source yanros)

In one of the final scenes of the film, in 2004, Paul McCartney eventually made it to Moscow and sang ‘Back in the USSR’ in the Red Square. People wept. The circle was closed. The Beatles had won the cold war. Cornel Chiriac was also there.

Denis Hopper died yesterday. He acted in more than 200 films, and directed eight. Some of these films were milestones in the development of the American cinema, some of them were trash. He was a fabulous actor and a man of his time who lived a controversial life. When I think of him two films come first of all to my mind.

(video source IzwergShkiv)

The first one is a film that I got to see more than 35 years after it was made, but about whose theme and music I knew scores around the time when it was made. Easy Rider was often present in the radio broadcasts of Cornel Chiriac from Radio Free Europe, and Cornel – the mentor of our generation and our teacher in music and freedom – was talking about it and playing its fabulous music. I wonder if Dennis Hopper ever knew what kind of impact his anti-capitalist establishment film had made for the youth of the Communist countries, who were reading in the film and in its music the same elements of revolt and thirst for freedom common to the young generation on both sides of the Iron Curtain.

(video source pulpmur)

When David Lynch’s Blue Velvet was out I was already a free man, and this was one of the first films I have seen after my emigration. I was building from almost zero my cinema culture, and living, surviving, absorbing the culture shock of meeting a film art developed in freedom to say what it wants and how it wants (or almost, as I was to learn in time). Lynch’s brutal symbolism, his world full of shades and mysteries, populated with dark, grotesque, pathetic characters had found in Hopper the perfect actor to fit the director’s mind waves.

Andy Warhol's Portrait - source commons.wikimedia.org

By one of these unique coincidences that makes you wonder, the European TV channel ARTE broadcast the German documentary Dennis Hopper: Create (or Die) just three days before Dennis Hopper died. The film was made in 2003, so it misses the final years of Hopper, which is maybe better as these years included personal dramas like his divorce and the fight with the malady that eventually defeated him. We are taken though the principal milestones of Hopper’s biography, including his debut start in Hollywood, the meeting with James Dean and the influence he played upon him, his insubordination on sets and conflicts with the Hollywood directors which led to his black-listing, the years in New, the making of ‘Easy Rider’ with the road trip he took in open space America under the influence of the French New Wave directors, the filming of milestones like ‘Apocalypse Now’, ‘Blue Velvet’, ‘Colors’, his fight with dependency on drugs and alcohol. We come to know Hopper as a complex artist, a valuable photographer who had always a camera on him, and whose portraits or American life shots figure among the best in the genre, but also a rebel painter (who may still be rediscovered and become famous in posterity) and exquisite art collector. I found the Frankfurt actors class sequences to be extremely interesting, as they present the concept that stands behind Hopper’s technique based over all on the truth of the artistic experience. If you would not die without creating, better go and do something else than being an artist – this is the message that he left to his students and fans.

You will be missed, Dennis Hopper. Easy Ride!

Pe 4 martie se implines 35 de ani de cand Cornel Chiriac a fost asasinat la Munchen. Pentru generatia mea si generatiile apropriate Cornel a fost una dintre figurile formative si un simbol.

(sursa http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cornel_Chiriac)

Dupa ce a incercat sa promoveze in Romania muzica rock si jazz cu emisiuni la radio si televiziune, cu activitati in cluburi si festivale studentesti Cornel a ales in 1969 calea libertatii. Scurta vreme dupa aceea vocea sa familiara a putut fi auzita pe calea undelor la Radio Europa Libera.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IFCkdMKQuF0&feature=related

(video from impy4ever)

In emisiunile sale ‘Metronom’ si ‘Jazz a la Carte’ Cornel Chiriac a prezentat tot peisajul larg si variat al muzicii rock si jazz al acelei perioade. Spirit enciclopedic inzestrat cu o extraordinara cultura muzicala a deschis gustul pentru muzica buna si a educat generatii intregi de artisti si de iubitori de muzica. Se poate spune ca peisajul rockului romanesc ar fi fost altul daca Cornel Chriac si emisiunile sale nu ar fi existat in acei ani.

sursa http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cornel_Chiriac

Cornel insa a reprezentat pentru noi mai mult decat muzica. A fost o fereastra deschisa spre cultura generatiei noastre in lume de care eram izolati de cenzura regimului comunist. A fost un exemplu de gandire libera si un indemn de a refuza rutina, de a cauta sa intelegem tot ce este nou, de a accepta lumea in toata varietatea si frumusetea sa. Atragand tinerii acelor vremuri la Europa Libera, Cornel Chiriac a dus la cresterea semnificativa a popularitatii acestui post de radio, alternativa de informatie si de comentarii politice si opinii necenzurate fara echivalent pentru Romania acelor vremuri.

In fiecare an la 4 martie o parte dintre admiratorii lui Cornel se aduna la cimitirul din Bucuresti unde a fost adusa cenusa sa pentru odihna vesnica. Sunt si eu cu gandul alaturi de ei si cinstesc memoria celui care a fost pentru mine si pentru multi dascal in ale muzicii si ale libertatii. Fie-i memoria binecuvantata.

Johnny Cash era unul dintre cantaretii de folk preferatiai lui Cornel Chiriac in zilele de joi (daca imi amintesc bine) in care Metronomul era dedicat genurilor folk si country & western. Poate alaturi de Arlo Guthrie era cantaretul de country cel mai indragit de Cornel. Erau si anii cei mai buni ai lui Johnny Cash, anii in care a scos cele mai bune discuri si a dat concertele inregistrate la inchisorile San Quentin si Folsom.

Am vazut astazi documentarul ‘Johnny Cash at Folosom Prison‘  al regizorului Bestor Cram. Filmul depaseste limitele unui documentar din culisele concertului si prezinta contextul mai larg al biografiei lui Cash si al interesului pe care acesta l-a manifestat in tot timpul vietii sale pentru conditiile detinutilor din inchisorile americane.

In pofida conceptiei alimentate de talentul si simtirea cu care Cash a preluat cantece din repertoriul detinutilor, a flirturilor sale cu bautura si drogurile, si a unor probleme care s-au soldat cel mult cu arestari de o noapte, cantaretul nu s-a gasit niciodata ca detinut in inchisoare in spatele gratiilor. Eliberat in 1954 din armata americana dupa ce trecuse o perioada de stagiu in Germania asemanatoare celei pe care avea sa o efectueze cu cativa ani mai tarziu Elvis, Johnny Cash incepe o cariera muzicala alaturi de un grup numit Tennessee Two. In scurt timp este remarcat de producatorul Sam Philips de la Sun Records, iar unul dintre primele sale cantece este Folsom Prison Blues, inspirat de un film de fictiune din 1951 inspirat din viata inchisorii, unul dintre penitenciarele de maxima securitate in care erau intemnitati in acea vreme criminali violenti condamnati la pedepse grele, unii chiar condamnati la moarte.

Au urmat ‘I walked the Line’ – primul sau mare succes national si el un cantec de inchisoare. Cash incepe sa studieze repertoriul genului si apoi sa cante in inchisori, in credinta ca prin cantec poate contribui la imbunatatirea conditiilor detinutilor si readucerea lor in cadrul societatii. Concertul prezentat in film a fost inregistrat pentru casa de discuri Columbia in 1968. A urmat concertul si mai faimos de la San Quentin din 1969. O parte din documentar este dedicata prieteniilor pe care le-a format in timpul vizitelor si concertelor sale in inchisori, povetiri si interviuri cu oamenii pe care i-a ajutat – pe unii cu mai mult succes, pe altii cu mai putin. Este partea cea mai interesanta si mai solida a filmului, alaturi de multa muzica buna si cateva clipuri noi pe muzica originala dintre care cele realizate in tehnica de animatie mi s-au parut cele mai reusite.

Trailerul filmului

http://www.imdb.com/video/wab/vi2919105049/

Postul de televiziune Mezzo m-a ajutat sa descopar doi extraordinari muzicieni de jazz francezi – Martial Solal si Didier Lockwood inregistrati la un concert la festivalul de la Antibes in 1990.

Pianistul Martial Solal este nascut la Alger in 1927. A compus muzica filmului ‘A bout de souffle‘ al lui Godard, si a participat la festivalul de la Newport din 1963 despre care Cornel Chiriac a vorbit in repetate randuri in emisiunile sale de jazz.

Iata doua secvente recente:

Violonistul Didier Lockwood este nascut la Calais in 1956, a fost influentat de Jean-Luc Ponty si Stephane Grapelli si a cantat rock inainte de a se stabili la jazz.

http://www.didierlockwood.com/

Nu am gasit din pacate niciun fragment din concertul in care au aparut cei doi.